• CPN


Updated: Nov 8, 2019

Frequently Asked Questions about GDPR

When did GDPR come into effect? The GDPR was approved and adopted by the EU Parliament in April 2016. The regulation took effect after a two-year transition period and, unlike a Directive, did not require any legislation to be passed by government. GDPR came into force on 25th May 2018.

Who does the GDPR affect? The GDPR not only applies to organisations located within the EU but also applies to organisations located outside of the EU if they offer goods or services to, or monitor the behavior of, EU data subjects. It applies to all companies processing and holding the personal data of data subjects residing in the European Union, regardless of the company’s location.

What are the penalties for non-compliance? Organizations can be fined up to 4% of annual global turnover for breaching GDPR or €20 Million. This is the maximum fine that can be imposed for the most serious infringements e.g.not having sufficient customer consent to process data or violating the core of Privacy by Design concepts. There is a tiered approach to fines e.g. a company can be fined 2% for not having their records in order (article 28), not notifying the supervising authority and data subject about a breach or not conducting impact assessment. It is important to note that these rules apply to both controllers and processors – meaning ‘clouds’ are not exempt from GDPR enforcement.

What constitutes personal data? The GDPR applies to ‘personal data’, meaning any information relating to an identifiable person who can be directly or indirectly identified in particular by reference to an identifier. This definition provides for a wide range of personal identifiers to constitute personal data, including name, identification number, location data or online identifier, reflecting changes in technology and the way organisations collect information about people.

What is the difference between a data processor and a data controller? A controller is the entity that determines the purposes, conditions and means of the processing of personal data, while the processor is an entity which processes personal data on behalf of the controller.

Do data processors need ‘explicit’ or ‘unambiguous’ data subject consent – and what is the difference? The conditions for consent have been strengthened, as companies are no longer able to utilise long illegible terms and conditions full of legalese. The request for consent must be given in an intelligible and easily accessible form, with the purpose for data processing attached to that consent,meaning it must be unambiguous. Consent must be clear and distinguishable from other matters and provided in an intelligible and easily accessible form, using clear and plain language. It must be as easy to withdraw consent as it is to give it.​  Explicit consent is required only for processing sensitive personal data – in this context, nothing short of “opt in” will suffice. However, for non-sensitive data, “unambiguous” consent will suffice.

Do companies need to be compliant when it’s unknown what will happen to EU data laws in the UK after Brexit? If a company processes data about individuals in the context of selling goods or services to citizens in other EU countries then it will need to comply with the GDPR, irrespective as to whether or not the UK retains the GDPR post-Brexit. If activities are limited to the UK, then the position (after the initial exit period) is much less clear. The UK Government has indicated it will implement an equivalent or alternative legal mechanisms. The expectation is that any such legislation will largely follow the GDPR, given the support previously provided to the GDPR by the ICO and UK Government as an effective privacy standard, together with the fact that the GDPR provides a clear baseline against which UK business can seek continued access to the EU digital market. (Ref:

How does GDPR affect marketing strategies? Data plays a critical part in both digital and direct marketing strategies and therefore marketers must ensure they have demonstrated clear compliance and consent. CMOs and marketers must demonstrate how the data subject has consented to the processing of their personal data. Marketing databases have to be cleansed and reviewed to ensure that the organisation can identify consent which has been granted lawfully and fairly. Although GDPR only affects citizens living in the European Union, it is recommended that companies that operate internationally ensure all of their global audience is GDPR compliant to meet stringent data regulations in the future.

How can CIOs manage consumer trust? Increasingly, CIOs are embedding personal data sharing controls seamlessly into existing and pre-authenticated customer touchpoints. This gives customers the gift of choice, allowing them to change, rectify and revoke their consent at ease. In short, it unlocks the power of data at the lowest risk to both customers and banks. CIOs must perform a privacy impact assessment (PIAs) to show how personally identifiable information (PII) is collected, used and shared by an organisation. The PIAs allow CIOs to ensure that privacy by design is default in a business. As personally identifiable information can be present across a range of platforms, such as cloud based applications or internal tools like Slack, all data needs to be inventoried. CIOs must demonstrate a risk based approach to data protection – through the deletion, encryption or redaction of data, dependent on its sensitivity.Lastly, CIOs must have strategies in place to issue breach notifications to regulators within 72 hours. CIOs that are not compliant are in danger of losing credibility and consumer trust in their organisation overnight. In this context, it is unthinkable for a forward thinking organisation not to make every effort to reduce corporate risk and eliminate liability when it comes to both handling data and allowing third party access to it.

How is GDPR compliance affected by the Payment Services Directive (PSD2)? Like the GDPR, PSD2 came into force in early 2018, and it shares a similar aim with GDPR giving customers greater control of their personal data. As such, to ensure compliance with both, an integrated approach is needed. Banks must evaluate their data protection and consent management processes, policies and procedures and approach PSD2 and GDPR in tandem, taking the requirements of both into account.

What about Data Subjects under the age of 16? Parental consent is required to process the personal data of children under the age of 16 for online services; member states may legislate for a lower age of consent but this will not be below the age of 13.

What is the difference between a regulation and a directive? A regulation is a binding legislative act. It must be applied in its entirety across the EU, while a directive is a legislative act that sets out a goal that all EU countries must achieve. However, it is up to the individual countries to decide how. It is important to note that the GDPR is a regulation, in contrast the the previous legislation, which is a directive.

Do businesses need to appoint a Data Protection Officer (DPO)? DPOs must be appointed in the case of: (a) public authorities, (b) organizations that engage in large scale systematic monitoring, or (c) organizations that engage in large scale processing of sensitive personal data (Art. 37).  If your organization doesn’t fall into one of these categories, then the organization do not need to appoint a DPO.

How does GDPR affect policy surrounding data breaches? Proposed regulations surrounding data breaches primarily relate to the notification policies of companies that have been breached. Data breaches which may pose a risk to individuals must be notified to the DPA within 72 hours and to affected individuals without undue delay.

What will happen to companies that have missed the deadline? If the GDPR deadline has been missed, it is imperative the business in question acts urgently  to become compliant. Demonstrating strong data rights management is important to both customers and employees; they should understand why the data is collected and how it is handled on a legal basis. Current  business data processes need to be looked at as an immediate priority so that the company doesn’t risk non-compliance penalties.

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